Friday, February 22, 2013

Mobility Model and Traffic Pattern based Optimization of Reactive Protocols for VANETs

A typical VANET

A city scenario

Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is the special type of MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network) where the mobile nodes are vehicles that move on roads at very high speed following traffic rules; they provide communication between vehicle and vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle and Road side infrastructural unit (V 2 I). A number of mobility models have been presented and their impact on the performance on the routing protocols has been tested by the researchers.

We have tested the performance of AODV and AOMDV protocols using Intelligent Driver Mobility model and with different traffic patterns. For this analysis we have created  a scenario of a city with three different clusters.

We have also found the energy consumption of the vehicles using these protocols

Our resesrch paper publication on this topic

Saturday, July 14, 2012

Genetic Algorithm-Based Energy-Efficient Protocol For Wireless Sensor Networks


The development of Genetic Algorithm (GA) to improve the performance of LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) is presented in this paper. In the proposed protocol initialization, population, crossover, mutation and fitness functions are calculated. In this proposed protocol GA facilitates the process of selecting the optimal cluster head. We employ that a set of the cluster head is a chromosome. As time evolves, these chromosomes are given different chances to reproduce according to their fitness. In the reproduction one chromosome will probably mutate, or two chromosomes can crossover. After many generations one expects the optimum chromosomes or solutions that will emerge from the population. Simulation results show that the proposed genetic-algorithm-based protocol effectively produces optimal energy consumption for the wireless sensor networks, and resulting in an extension of lifetime for the network.


Our work proposes a genetic algorithm-based (GA-based) adaptive clustering protocol, termed LEACH-GA, to predict the optimal values of probability effectively.

Publication: (Authors: Deepak Karia and Vaibhav Godbole)

In press of:

Thursday, July 12, 2012

Mobility Models and traffic Pattern Generation Based Optimization of Reactive Protocols

A mobile ad-hoc network

Routing Protocol Classification

Classification of Mobility Models

Abstract: Mobile ad-hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any stand-alone infrastructure or centralized administration. Mobile Ad-hoc networks are self-organizing and self-configuring multi- hop wireless networks where, the structure of the network changes dynamically. This is mainly due to the mobility of the nodes. The primary objective of this paper is to study and investigate the performance measures of AODV, AOMDV and DSR routing protocols by using Nomadic Community Mobility Model, Random Direction Mobility Model and Pursue Mobility Model.A detailed simulation has been carried out in NS2. The metrics used for performance analysis are routing overhead, normalized routing load, avg end to end delay, throughput, routing cost and packet delivery ratio.


Mobile networks can be classified into infrastructure networks and mobile ad hoc networks (MANET)(C-K Toh, 2002) according to their dependence on fixed infrastructures. In an infrastructure mobile network, mobile nodes have wired access points (or base stations) within their transmission range. In contrast, mobile ad-hoc networks are autonomously self-organized networks without infrastructure support. In a mobile ad hoc network, nodes move arbitrarily, therefore the network may experience rapid and unpredictable topology changes. Routing paths in MANETs potentially contain multiple hops, and every node in MANET has the responsibility to act as a router. Routing in MANET has been a challenging task ever since the wireless networks came into existence. The major reason for this is the constant change in network topology because of high degree of node mobility. A number of protocols have been developed to accomplish this task (Surayati, 2009) There exists various mobility models such as random way point, reference point group mobility model (RPGM), Manhattan mobility model, freeway mobility model, Gauss Mobility Model, Freeway Mobility Model, Gauss Markov Mobility Model,Nomadic Community Mobility Model, Random Direction Mobility Model, Pursue Mobility Model etc.(M. Sanchez, 2011)(Tracy Camp, 2002)

  Publication: (Authors: Deepak Karia and Vaibhav Godbole)

  In press of :
  International Journal Intelligence Engineering Informatics (Inderscience Publications)

Thursday, November 10, 2011

Energy Efficient Protocol for MANET using Ant Colony Optimization Technique with Distance awareness system

The field of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) has gained an important part of the interest of researchers and become very popular in past few years. MANETs can be used to set up a temporary mean of communication by having nodes behave as hosts and routers, with packets hopping between nodes to reach the destination node. This makes MANET suitable for rapid deployment, but because of the dynamic changes in network configurations, quickly finding the optimum route is difficult. In this study, the authors propose a biology-inspired ant routing protocol based on ant colony optimisation called as optimised antnet global positioning system, which is based on GPS and mobile software agents modelled on ants for routing in ad-hoc networks. The authors compare the performance of the authors protocol with Antnet, ad-hoc on-demand distance vector, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Ad-hoc On Demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) protocols with respect to end-to-end delay, average throughput, packet delivery ratio and route cost.

Latex Source of Progress Report


"A New Approach For Routing In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Based On Ant Colony Optimization With GPS", IET Networks, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 171-180, Sept. 2012


Monday, October 31, 2011

Performance comparison of routing protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless sensor networks consist of small nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communications capabilities. Many routing,power management, and data dissemination protocols have been specially designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an essential design issue. Routing protocols in WSNs might differ depending on the application and network architecture. In this presentation we present a survey of state of-the-art routing techniques in WSNs. We outline the design challenges for routing protocols in WSNs followed by a comprehensive survey of routing techniques. Overall, the routing techniques are classied into three categories based on the underlying network structure: flat, hierarchical, and location-based routing. Furthermore, these protocols can be classied into multipath-based, query-based,negotiation-based, QoS-based, and coherent-based depending on the protocol operation.To prolong the lifetime of the sensor nodes, designing e cient routing protocols is critical. Even though sensor networks are primarily designed for monitoring and reporting events, since they are application dependent, a single routing protocol cannot be effcient for sensor networks across all applications.

Download: Latex Source
Download: Presentation Slides